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Diurnal Adult Resting Sites and Breeding Habitats of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas of Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka

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dc.contributor.author Wijerathna, T.
dc.contributor.author Gunathilaka, N.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-29T06:49:22Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-29T06:49:22Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.citation Parasites and vectors. 2020;13(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s13071-020-04154-7. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1756-3305 (Electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1756-3305 (Linking)
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.kln.ac.lk/handle/123456789/21133
dc.description Indexed in MEDLINE en_US
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Sand flies are responsible for the transmission of several disease pathogens including Leishmania. Sand flies breed in habitats with high levels of humidity and organic matter. They are nocturnal in nature and peak activity ranges from dusk to dawn. The scientific evidence on breeding ecology and diurnal resting sites of sand fly fauna are important aspects of planning and implementing vector control activities. However, such fundamental information is grossly inadequate in Sri Lanka to support the control efforts in the country. Therefore, the present study addresses some of the important aspects of sand fly breeding ecology and diurnal resting sites. METHODS: Potential resting sites were thoroughly observed, and sand flies were collected using a battery-operated aspirator and sticky papers when appropriate from three selected Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas (Polpithigama, Maho and Galgamuwa) in Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka. Soil samples were collected from each potential breeding site. Half of each soil sample was incubated for 45 days. The other half was screened for immature stages. Adult sand flies collected from field and emerged adults at the insectary under confined incubation were identified using morphological characteristics. RESULTS: Pepper bushes and termite mounds were the most notable resting sites while, betel bushes, cattle huts, piles of coconut shells, latrines, manna bushes and tree holes were also positive for sand fly adults. Only two species, Phlebotomus argentipes and Sergentomyia punjabensis, were reported. Soil samples were collected from a total of 432 sites and 7 of them were positive for immature stages. Predominant breeding habitats identified during the present study were mud flats and moist soils of rice paddies, the soil below decaying hay, drying irrigational tank bottom moist soil, and the floors of cattle huts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the potential adult resting sites and breeding habitats are abundant in the Polpithigama, Maho and Galgamuwa MOH areas. Therefore, vector control activities targeting both adult and immature stages of sand flies are recommended. KEYWORDS: Breeding sites; Leishmaniasis; Resting sites; Sand fly; Sri Lanka. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Parasites and vectors en_US
dc.subject Phlebotomine Sand en_US
dc.title Diurnal Adult Resting Sites and Breeding Habitats of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas of Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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